AoAD2 Practice: Test-Driven Development

This is an excerpt from The Art of Agile Development, Second Edition. Visit the Second Edition home page for additional excerpts and more!

This excerpt is copyright 2007, 2021 by James Shore and Shane Warden. Although you are welcome to share this link, do not distribute or republish the content without James Shore’s express written permission.

Test-Driven Development


We produce high-quality code in small, verifiable steps.

“What programming languages really need is a ‘DWIM’ instruction,” the joke goes. “Do what I mean, not what I say.”

Programming is demanding. It requires perfection, consistently, for months and years of effort. At best, mistakes lead to code that won’t compile. At worst, they lead to bugs that lie in wait and pounce at the moment that does the most damage.

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if there were a way to make computers do you what you mean? A technique so powerful, it virtually eliminates the need for debugging?

There is such a technique. It’s test-driven development, and it really works.

Test-driven development, or TDD, is a rapid cycle of testing, coding, and refactoring. When adding a feature, you’ll perform dozens of these cycles, implementing and refining the software in tiny steps until there is nothing left to add and nothing left to take away. Done well, TDD ensures that the code does exactly what you mean, not just what you say.

When used properly, TDD also helps you improve your design, documents your code for future programmers, enables refactoring, and guards against future mistakes. Better yet, it’s fun. You’re always in control and you get this constant reinforcement that you’re on the right track.

TDD isn’t perfect, of course. TDD helps programmers code what they intended to code, but it doesn’t stop programmers from misunderstanding what they need to do. It helps improve documentation, refactoring, and design, but only if programmers work hard to do so. It also has a learning curve: it’s difficult to add to legacy codebases, and it takes extra effort to apply to code that involves the outside world, such as user interfaces, networking, and databases.

Try it anyway. Although TDD benefits from other Agile practices, it doesn’t require them. You can use it with almost any code. continue reading, buy the book!

In this Section

  1. Test-Driven Development
    1. Why TDD Works
      1. Key Idea: Fast Feedback
    2. How to Use TDD
      1. Step 1: Think
      2. Step 2: Red bar
      3. Step 3: Green bar
      4. Step 4: Refactor
      5. Step 5: Repeat
        1. Cargo Cult: Test-Driven Debaclement
    3. Eat the Onion from the Inside Out
    4. A TDD Example
      1. Start with the core interface
      2. Calculations and branches
      3. Loops and generalization
      4. Special cases, error handling, and runtime assertions
    5. Questions
    6. Prerequisites
    7. Indicators
    8. Alternatives and Experiments
    9. Further Reading

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